Diagnostic cystoscopy ± biopsy of bladder mucosa/tumour

A cystoscopy is a procedure in which a cystoscope, a narrow tube that comprises a camera and a light, is inserted into the urethra and bladder. The procedure allows your doctor to view the inside of the bladder in order to diagnose urinary conditions, as well as obstructions, tumours, and an enlarged prostate. 


Hydrodilatation is a procedure in which a condition called interstitial cystitis is diagnosed and treated. The condition occurs when the bladder is inflamed, causing pain and discomfort.

Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour

Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour is a surgical procedure that may be recommended in cases where your doctor needs to confirm the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The procedure can also be used as a means of treatment for early-stage bladder cancer, particularly in cases where the disease has not spread to the inner layers of the bladder.

During the procedure, your doctor will insert a cystoscope through the urethra and into the bladder. Any abnormal tissue and tumours are then removed and sent to a laboratory for further testing. Any remaining cancer cells are destroyed with a high-energy laser.

Insertion of suprapubic catheter

A suprapubic catheter is a type of urinary catheter that is inserted into the bladder in order to drain urine. The catheter is inserted into the bladder just below the belly button. Urine can then be drained from the body without the insertion of a tube in the urethra. Insertion of a suprapubic catheter may be recommended in cases of urinary retention; urinary incontinence; spinal injuries; bladder cancer; and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Some benefits of using a suprapubic catheter rather than a normal catheter include less risk of infection and less damage to the genitals and surrounding tissue.

Treatment of a bladder stone

Bladder stones develop when concentrated amounts of urine remain in the bladder after urination. They can occur as a result of bladder problems, a damaged urethra, an enlarged prostate, or a urinary tract infection. In order to diagnose bladder stones, your doctor may perform a number of tests including urinalysis, a spiral CT scan, ultrasound, x-ray, and an intravenous pyelogram. If bladder stones are found, they can be treated by means of a procedure known as cystolitholapaxy. During the procedure, a special laser or ultrasound device is used to break down the stones into small pieces, which can then be removed. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove larger bladder stones.

Botox treatment

Your doctor may recommend Botox for the treatment of an overactive bladder. Symptoms of an overactive bladder include the need to urgently urinate; the need to urinate often (more than eight times a day, and more than twice at night); and leaking urine. During the treatment, the Botox is injected into the bladder muscle and works by slowing down the nerves that over stimulate the bladder muscles. The treatment is typically repeated around every eight months.

Sacral neuromodulation

Sacral neuromodulation may be recommended for the treatment of bladder and bowel problems. During the therapy, electrical pulses are used to stimulate the nerves which control the bladder muscles. A small device is implanted under the skin in the buttocks, so that pulses can be delivered regularly to the nerves.